This abstract is summarized by IPR from the original journal article published in Public Relations Journal.

The authors of this study surveyed a random sample of public relations professionals to provide a comprehensive theoretical model that explains the persistent pay inequity between men and women in public relations.

Key Findings
·       Women earn less than men simply because of their gender.
o   Gendered income disparity in public relations can be attributed to years of professional experience, manager role enactment, participation in management decision-making, income-suppressing career interruptions, and career specialization.
·       $8,305 annually, or $332,200 over a 40-year career, is the concrete cost of gender discrimination in public relations.
·       Even with all mediating variables accounted for, the average income was $84,368 for men and $76,063 for women, a difference of $8,305.

Conclusion and Implication on Industry
It is difficult to measure gender discrimination as it cannot be measured by directly asking respondents in a survey if they systematically discriminate against women as reflected in salaries. This conduct is illegal, which would generate only normative responses. However, the empirical data evidenced in this study by residual variance concludes gender discrimination is they key cause for women earning less than men in the U.S. public relations industry.

Read the in-depth findings and discussion that substantiate this study and provide contextual insight here.

Location of Article: Full study can be found online, here, for free.


Dozier, D. M., Ph.D., Sha, B., Ph.D., & Shen, H., Ph.D. (2013). Why Women Earn Less Than Men: The Cost of Gender Discrimination in U.S. Public Relations. Public Relations Journal, 7(1).

Heidy Modarelli handles Growth & Marketing for IPR. She has previously written for Entrepreneur, TechCrunch, The Next Web, and VentureBeat.
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